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Currency has evolved through several phases from Barter to Cryptocurrency as detailed below. Cryptocurrency is a Digital currency which will eventually be the future form of money:
  1. Barter (Trading of Goods & Services directly without any "Medium of Exchange")
  2. Primitive Money (Pre-Coinage and Coinage)
    • Cowry Shells, Wampum Belts, Cattle, Whale's teeth, Grain, Tobacco, Rai Stone etc
    • Physical Metal Coinage - 700 BC in Greece, 200 BC in China
    • Receipts for Metal Coinage - 900 AD in China, 1600 AD in Europe
  3. Commodity Money (Notes Redeemable in Metal - 1200 AD in China, 1700 AD Europe)
  4. Fiat Money (Notes not Redeemable in Metal - 1800 in West, post 1973 Globally)
  5. Cryptocurrency (In 2009 Satoshi Nakamoto launched 1st Digitally encrypted money called Bitcoin using Blockchain Technology)​. Eventually, all currencies will be replaced with Cryptocurrencies


​​​A Blockchain can be briefly defined as a tamper-proof, shared digital ledger that records transactions in a decentralized peer-to-peer network. The entire history of asset exchanges that take place between the peers (participants) are stored permanently in the Blockchain network. The decentralized control of Blockchain works as a distributed Public Ledger. 

The blockchain is the public record of all transactions in chronological order. Blockchain has the entire transaction ledger history showing how the assets have been transferred from one address to another over time. Following are key benefits of decentralised Blockchain Ledger
  • Invulnerable to censorship and exclusion
  • Invulnerable to malfeasance by record-keepers
  • Invulnerable to loss of records
  • No “single point of failure” able to modify the ledger

Bitcoin and most of the Cryptocurrencies uses the Blockchain technology. Blockchain Technology will revolutionise not only the core functioning of Banking but also can be utilised in several other industries. Some of the key applications of Blockchain are:
  • Bank Accounts
  • Accounting Ledgers
  • Public Records i.e. Land Registries, Criminal Records, Voter Records, Court Records...
  • Private Records i.e. Wills, Trusts...
  • Vehicle Registrations
  • License Management
  • Securities Records
  • Medical Records
  • Hotel Reservations
  • Citizenship Records
  • Academic Certificates
  • Blockchain can store a cryptographic hash representing a new song’s: Artist, Composer, Title, Official Video/Audio...
  • Real Estate Management Authenticity - Property holders could digitally prove and transfer ownership immediately without the need to pay and wait for 3rd party verification
  • Supply Chain Shipping – Digitize Supply Chain Process Eg. IBM Watson IBM and MAERSK
  • Solar Energy Management - Transparency through the whole process. Decentralized and direct Buying/Selling of Energy among Participants – Independence from 3rd Party Power Provider  Eg. The Brooklyn Microgrid
  • ...


​​A cryptocurrency is a digital currency in which encryption techniques are used to regulate the generation of units of currency and verify the transfer of funds and operating in decentralised environment independent of a central bank.

Bitcoin is the first decentralized cryptocurrency built on Blockchain Technology launched by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009. Bitcoin is regarded as the King of cryptocurrencies. You can buy Bitcoins from the Public Exchanges and store them in Digital Wallets.

Since 2009 numerous cryptocurrencies have been created. As of 2018, there were over 1500 cryptocurrencies in the Cryptocurrency market. The top 5 digital curriencies in the CryptoCurrency Market Capitalizations are:
  1. Bitcoin (BTC)
  2. Ethereum (ETH)
  3. Ripple (XRP)
  4. Litecoin (LTC)
  5. Dash (DASH)​​


​​​Most Online investment programs accept payment by Bitcoins in addition to other payment methods. Payment by Bitcoins is Cheap and Fast. In most cases Bicoin payments are finalised within an hour. Bitcoin is the preferred payment option. Hence, it is mandatory you have a Wallet and Bitcoins to participate in online investment programs:

Wallet is basically a Bank Account to receive Bitcoins and other Crypto-Currencies, Store them and Send them to others. There are THREE main types of Wallets which are detailed below:
  1. Software Wallet (also known as Hot Wallet or Online Wallet) is one that you install on your own computer or mobile device. After installation, it is highly recommended to enable Two Factor Authentication (2FA) for additional security of your Wallet. Hot Wallet is always online and connected to the internet. Hot Wallet is suitable for frequently accessed funds and regular use​
  2. Hardware Wallet (also known as Cold Wallet or Offline Wallet) is a physical device which is always offline or disconnected from the internet. Cold Wallet is considered the most secure and hence recommended for storing large amounts of Bitcoins or other Cryptocurrencies for long term holdings
  3. Paper Wallet (also known as Cold Storage) used to store crypto-currencies usually on a Computer. This requires printing of Public and Private Keys. Hence the name 'Paper'. It offers Users complete control of their Wallets 


Listed below are the popular Wallets used to store Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies. Click the respective links to create your Wallet:
1. Software or Hot or Online Wallets:
​​ 2. Hardware or Cold or Offline Wallets:
3. Paper or Cold Storage Wallet:


​​​​To buy Bitcoins or any other Crypto-Currencies you need to open Trading account(s) with Public Exhanges. 

As part of your account creation process, please ensure you perform the following activities: 
  • Verify your identity by submitting your Photo ID (i.e. Passport, Drivers Licence etc.) and Address Proof (i.e. Utility bills, Bank Statements etc.) as requested by the Exchange. Identity verification protects you from potential fraud and also fulfils KYC, AML and CTF compliance requirements for the exchange
  • Enable 2FA (TWO Factor Authentication) for additional security of your account

Lised below are the popular Public Exchanges. Click the respective links to open your account:
Recommended Exchanges:
  1. Global Major Trading Exchange: BINANCE
  2. Global Major Trading Exchange: KuCoin
  3. Global: BTC-Alpha
  4. Global:  CoinFalcon
  5. Global:  IDAX
  6. Australia: CoinSpot
  7. Australia: LiveCoin
  8. Australia: COINJAR
  9. Australia: ClassyExchange
Other Exchanges:
  1. Major Trading Exchanges: POLONIEX
  2. Major Trading Exchanges: BITTREX ​​​​
  3. Major Trading Exchanges: Kraken
  4. Global:  HowToBuyBitcoins
  5. Global: LocalBitcoins
  6. Gobal:  CEX.IO
  7. Australia: BITSTAMP
  8. Australia: BitTRADE AUSTRALIA
  9. Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya: luno (before BitX)
  10. Europe/Australia (25 Countries): Coinbase
  11. New Zearland: NZBCX
  12. New Zearland: BITCOIN NEW ZEARLAND
  13. Germany: bitcoin.de
  14. China: BTCCHINA.COM
  15. India: UNOCOIN
  16. India: KOINEX
  17. India:  zebpay
  18. India:  coinsecure
  19. India:  bitxoxo
  20. Indonesia: bitcoin.co.id
  21. Ireland: Bitcove
  22. Israel: Bits of Gold
  23. Uganda:  Remitano


​Though Bitcoin is the preferred payment option offered by most online investments, some programs offer other payment methods. Listed below some popular payment methods. Click the respective links to create your account.

You need to verify your identity by submitting your Photo ID (i.e. Passport, Drivers Licence etc.) and Address Proof (i.e. Utility bills, Bank statements etc.) as requested by the respective payment processing organisation. Identity verification protects you from potential fraud.
  1. Payza
  3. PAYTOO​​​​
  4. PayPal


Recommendations to minimise the risk of your online investments:
  • Stay away from Ponzi schemes (i.e. Programs that does not offer any tangible Product or Service)
  • Avoid High Yield Investment Programs (HYIP) or get rich quick schemes
  • Be vigilant about online offers which are too good to be true (scams) - research before investing
  • Never invest more than what you can afford to lose
  • Recover your seed money before investing more
  • Never put all your Eggs in One Basket. You should diversify and plan for multiple streams of income
  • Enable Two Factor Authentication (2FA) when offered by the investment program


ICO stands for Initial Coin Offering. ICO is similar to IPO (Initial Public Offering). ICOs and IPOs are often issued by smaller and younger companies seeking capital to expand their business. Considering the high percentage failures of ICOs, it is highly recommended to follow the 6 step process to choose an ICO:
  • Know the people behind the Project/Program
  • Understand the concept and the Problem solved by the program
  • Understand the Target Market
  • Evaluate the Technology
  • Nitpick the White Paper
  • Understand what and how the Coins are used for​


Cybercrime and Identity Theft has become a common threat for internet users. Find below some guidelines to secure your identity:
  • Choose Complex Password: Minimumt 12 characters with a mix of Special Characters, Upper & Lower case letters & Numbers
  • Do not use the same password for all accounts. Ensure you use a diffrent password for every account
  • Enable two factor authentication (2FA) of your registered emails and also your online accounts. All emails i.e. Microsoft hotmail and gmail provides an option to enable 2FA
  • Change your password regularly preferably every week
  • Do not use yahoo email
  • Use Password Management tools to generate and store encrypted passwords i.e. Lastpass
  • Always use a branded and reliable antivirus software
  • Avoid using public WiFi which are less secured and vulnerable
  • Do not share your personal details such as name, home address, phone number and email address online
  • Be cautious about suspicious and poorly worded emails. Do not click attachments, images or links from those emails, just simply delete them. It could be malware that once executed can allow attackers to access the data on your machine remotely
  • Review bank statements and credit card statements regularly
  • Be vigilant about online offers which are too good to be true
  • Know the recipient before sending funds
  • Watch out for ransomware i.e. Cryptolocker which is propagated via infected email attachments in the form of an executable file. Once activated the malware encrypts certain types of files stored on local and mounted network drives using cryptography
  • Avoid storing your fiat and cryptocurrencies with an exchange even for short period due to third-party risks i.e. Fraud, Security and Financial Health. Use it only for day-to-day small amount transactions and enable 2FA
  • If you are a victim of cybercrime in australia, please report it to acorn via online at http://www.acorn.gov.au